EDWARD I, KING OF ENGLAND b 1239 and Eleanor of Castile b 1235

 18th Generation

Edward was born 17 or 18 June 1239. He was the son of Henry III King of England and Eleanor of Provence. He married Eleanor of Castile on 18 October 1254. He was crowned Emperor on 19 August 1274. He married Marguerite of France on 8 September 1299. died 7 July 1307 at Burgh-on-the-Sands, England.

Edward was the oldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. Edward married Eleanor of Castille in 1254 to whom he had sixteen children, seven of which survived to adulthood, before her death.

As part of a peace settlement, Edward married Margaret, sister of Philip IV of France, with whom he had another three children.

Edward expanded the Parliament to include both Lords and Commons. Discovering that revenues from feudal claims were inadequate, Edward found that calling a national Parliament was a good form of revenue gaining. Edward expanded the courts including the King’s Bench, Common Pleas, Exchequer, and the Chancery Court, and established Conservators of the Peace.

Unification of the Island was Edward’s main goal. He made steps toward this with a campaign against Llywelyn ap Gruffydd of Wales. Llwelyn died in 1282, and in 1301, Edward’s eldest son, Edward II was named Prince of Wales, the title held by all male heirs to the throne to this day. When Margaret, Maid of Norway, died in 1290, there was no clear successor to the crown of Scotland. Edward was asked to arbitrate between thirteen different claims to the throne. His first choice, John Baliol, was unpopular; his second, William Wallace rebelled against England until his capture and execution in 1305. Robert Bruce seized the Scottish throne in 1306 and remained a thorn in the side of Edward II. Edward I died on his way to another Scottish campaign in 1307.

Edward is buried in a plain stone tomb in Westminster Abbey. He wished to be buried without a lid on his coffin so that his troops could still see him as they left for battle.

There is little record of Eleanor’s life in England until the 1260s, when the Second Barons’ War, between Henry III and his barons, divided the kingdom. During this time Eleanor actively supported Edward’s interests, importing archers from her mother’s county of Ponthieu in France. She was in England throughout the struggle. Rumors that she was seeking fresh troops from Castile led the baronial leader, Simon de Montfort, to order her removal from Windsor Castle in June 1264 after the royalist army had been defeated at the Battle of Lewes. Edward was captured at Lewes and imprisoned, and Eleanor was honorably confined at Westminster Palace. After Edward and Henry’s army defeated the baronial army at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, Edward took a major role in reforming the government and Eleanor rose to prominence at his side. Her position was greatly improved in July 1266 when, after she had borne three short-lived daughters, she finally gave birth to a son, John, who was followed by a second, Henry, in the spring of 1268, and in 1269 by a healthy daughter, Eleanor.

By 1270, the kingdom was pacified and Edward and Eleanor left to join his uncle Louis IX of France on the Eighth Crusade. Louis died at Carthage before they arrived, however, and after they spent the winter in Sicily, the couple went on to Acre in Palestine, where they arrived in May 1271. Eleanor gave birth to a daughter, known as “Joanna of Acre” for her birthplace.

The crusade was militarily unsuccessful, but Baibars of the Bahri dynasty was worried enough by Edward’s presence at Acre that an assassination attempt was made on the English heir in June 1272. He was wounded in the arm by a dagger that was thought to be poisoned. The wound soon became seriously inflamed, and an English surgeon saved him by cutting away the diseased flesh, but only after Eleanor was led from his bed, “weeping and wailing.” Later storytellers embellished this incident, claiming Eleanor sucked poison from the wound, but this fanciful tale has no foundation.

They left Palestine in September 1272 and in Sicily that December they learned of Henry III’s death (on 16 November 1272). Edward and Eleanor returned to England and were crowned together on 19 August 1274.



The Battle of Lewes

The Battle of Lewes was one of two main battles of the conflict known as the Second Barons’ War. It took place at Lewes in Sussex, on 14 May 1264. It marked the high point of the career of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, and made him the “uncrowned King of England”.

The battle occurred because of the vacillation of King Henry III, who was refusing to honour the terms of theProvisions of Oxford, an agreement he had signed with his barons, led by Montfort, in 1258. The King was encamped at St. Pancras Priory with a force of infantry, but his son, Prince Edward (later King Edward I) commanded the cavalry, at Lewes Castle 500 yards to the north. A night march enabled Montfort’s forces to surprise Prince Edward and take the high ground of the Sussex Downs, overlooking the town of Lewes, in preparation for battle. They wore white crosses as their distinguishing emblem.

The royalist army, perhaps as much as twice the size of Montfort’s, was led by Edward on the right and the King’s brother Richard of Cornwall on the left, while the King himself commanded the central battalion.Having led his men out from the castle to meet the enemy, Edward gained early success, but unwisely pursued a retreating force to the north, thus sacrificing the chance of overall victory. Meanwhile, Montfort defeated the remainder of the royal army led by the King and Cornwall. On being defeated, Cornwall decided to take refuge in the Priory. He was unable to reach the Priory so he hid in a windmill, where, upon his discovery, he was taunted with cries of “Come down, come down, thou wicked miller!” All three royals were eventually captured, and by imprisoning the King, Montfort became the de facto ruler of England.

The King was forced to sign the so-called Mise of Lewes. Though the document has not survived, it is clear that Henry was forced to accept the Provisions of Oxford, while Prince Edward remained hostage to the barons. This put Montfort in a position of ultimate power, which would last until Prince Edward’s escape, and Montfort’s subsequent defeat at the Battle of Evesham in August 1265.





The Battle of Evesham

The Battle of Evesham was one of the two main battles of 13th century England’s Second Barons’ War. It marked the defeat of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and the rebellious barons by Prince Edward – later King Edward I – who led the forces of his father, King Henry III. It took place on 4 August 1265, near the town of EveshamWorcestershire.

With the Battle of Lewes Montfort had won control of royal government, but after the defection of several close allies and the escape from captivity of Prince Edward, he found himself on the defensive. Forced to engage the royalists at Evesham, he faced an army twice the size of his own. The battle soon turned into a massacre; Montfort himself was killed and his body mutilated. Though the battle effectively restored royal autonomy, scattered resistance remained until the Dictum of Kenilworth was signed in 1267.





The Eighth Crusade

The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IXKing of France, in 1270. The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades of Frederick II are counted as a single crusade. The Ninth Crusade is sometimes also counted as part of the Eighth.

Louis was disturbed by events in Syria, where the Mamluk sultan Baibars had been attacking the remnant of the Crusader states. Baibars had seized the opportunity after a war pitting the cities of Venice and Genoaagainst each other (1256–1260) had exhausted the Syrian ports that the two cities controlled. By 1265 Baibars had captured NazarethHaifaToron, and ArsufHugh III of Cyprus, nominal king of Jerusalem, landed in Acre to defend that city, while Baibars marched as far north as Armenia, which was at that time under Mongol control.

These events led to Louis’ call for a new crusade in 1267, although there was little support this time; Jean de Joinville, the chronicler who accompanied Louis on the Seventh Crusade, refused to go. Louis was soon convinced by his brother Charles of Anjou to attack Tunis first, which would give them a strong base for attacking Egypt, the focus of Louis’ previous crusade as well as the Fifth Crusade before him, both of which had been defeated there. Charles, as King of Sicily, also had his own interests in this area of theMediterranean. The Khalif of Tunis, Muhammad I al-Mustansir, also had connections with Christian Spain and was considered a good candidate for conversion. In 1270 Louis landed on the African coast in July, a very unfavourable season for landing. Much of the army became sick because of poor drinking water, his Damietta born son John Sorrow died on August 3 and on August 25 Louis himself died from a “flux in the stomach”, one day after the arrival of Charles. His dying word was “Jerusalem.” Charles proclaimed Louis’ son Philip III the new king, but because of his youth Charles became the actual leader of the crusade.

Because of further diseases the siege of Tunis was abandoned on October 30 by an agreement with the sultan. In this agreement the Christians gained free trade with Tunis, and residence for monks and priests in the city was guaranteed, so the crusade could be regarded as a partial success. After hearing of the death of Louis and the evacuation of the crusaders from Tunis, Sultan Baibars of Egypt cancelled his plan to send Egyptian troops to fight Louis in Tunis. Charles now allied himself with Prince Edward of England, who had arrived in the meantime. When Charles called off the attack on Tunis, Edward continued on to Acre, the last crusader outpost in Syria. His time spent there is often called the Ninth Crusade.